Heat Balance Calculation Software for Steam Turbine Based Thermal Power Plant


ES_Rankine is menu-driven software that can calculate easily and quickly the heat balances of steam turbine based thermal power plant.


User Manual of ES_Rankine (1.4 MBytes)

 * The User Manual above is the pdf file that combines all of these web pages.


ES_Rankine is capable of calculating ;

1) Reheat(single) and Non-Reheat Cycles

Double reheat cycle has not been prepared because it is not used in the industry at the moment.

Efficiency improvement gain by double reheat cycle is not justified against it's complexity of physical layout and relevant additional cost    The studies for ultra supercritical power plants being carried out in USA, Europe and Japan are also using single reheat cycle instead of double reheat.

If double reheat cycle is justified and used in the industry in the future, double reheat cycle simulation capability shall be added at that time..


2) Power-given and Flow-given

In case of Power-Given, the software calculates turbine inlet flow..   In case of Flow-Given, the software calculates turbine generator output.

The turbine generator output calculated by the software is gross output after deducting turbine mechanical losses and generator losses.


3) Turbine Efficiency by Automatic Calculation or User Input

Automatically calculated efficiencies are based on the reference document [1] published by General Electric Co. of USA, and additionally applying supplementary equations reflecting the recent improvement of turbine efficiencies in the industry, especially those of high pressure turbines.

Also referred to the reference document [1] are ;

- reading of bleeding enthalpy and entropy of turbine steam path and

- calculation of exhaust loss of last stage blade.

For details, please refer to the Steam Turbine Efficiencies page.


4) Maximum 10 Feed Water Heaters

Three types of feed water heater selection are provided, i.e. Contact, Flash and Pumped.

By inputting of TTD(Terminal Temperature Difference) and DCA(Drain Cooler Approach), desuperheating and drain cooler zones can be simulated.

Flash and Pumped type heaters without drain cooler can be simulated by inputting "0" or  very big values for DCA.


5) Design Heat Balance and Operation Heat Balance

Design Heat Balance is to show design conditions of turbine cycle.

Operation Heat Balances are to show how the turbine cycle operates, when the turbine cycle is designed according to a Design Heat Balance.

Operation Heat Balance can be defined by % Design Load, output or turbine inlet flow.

For Operation Heat Balance, either of constant pressure control or sliding pressure control can be selected.   In case of sliding pressure control, % throttle valve opening input is provided for simulation of modified sliding pressure control.   The minimum pressure input is provided for sliding pressure control to define the minimum pressure at part load.

For Operation Heat Balance, feed water heater out of operation for all heaters is possible.   Bypass operation of a part of feed water of all heaters is also possible.


6) Industry Standard Heat Balances up to 1000 MW by Smart Run

The following industry standard heat balances are provided in Smart Run.


850 MW Class Reheat Advanced Ultra-Supercritical


1000 MW Class Reheat Ultra-Supercritical


750 MW Class Reheat Supercritical


500 MW Class Reheat Supercritical


500 MW Class Reheat Subcritical


250 MW Class Reheat Subcritical


100 MW Class Reheat Subcritical


100 MW Class Non-Reheat Subcritical

By selecting a industry standard heat balance and inputting the output wanted only, the heat balance in accordance with industry practice is prepared easily and quickly.   Please refer to "Quick HB" page for details.

Smart Run function also provides the capabilities of finding optimum final feed water temperature and/or optimum reheat pressure from the standard heat balances or the heat balances prepared by user.   This function is useful for studying the least heat rate heat balances from the heat balances provided by manufacturers.


ES_Rankine User Interface :

Below is main interface window of ES_Rankin.

DESIGN window opens by clicking "DESIGN" button.   When DESIGN window opens, the background color of "DESIGN" button changes to green.   OPERATION window opens by clicking "OPERATION" button.   When OPERATION window opens, the background color of "OPERATION" button changes to green.   The picture below shows that DESIGN window opens.



The picture below shows Graphic Input window of ES_Rankine, which pops up when clicking "Graphic" tab in DESIGN window.

Major design conditions of Design Heat Balance can be input in Graphic Input window seeing heat balance graphic.   Inputs of Graphic Input windows are duplicated in other tab windows.   If one input is changed in Graphic Input window, same input in other tab is changed automatically.


The picture below is OPERATION window that opens by clicking "OPERATION" button.


Smart Run

The picture below is Smart Run window which opens by clicking "Smart Run" button.


Graphic Output

Below is the graphic output window that pops up by clicking "Graphic Output..." button after run.

Graphic output windows pop up independently between Design and Operation Heat Balances, so that the result values of both load can be compared easily by seeing both windows at sight.

Graphic output can be printed by printers by clicking Printer button on the Graphic window.


Text Output

Below is the text output window that pops up by clicking "Text Output..." button after run.   The text output is a text file generated by the NotePad software provided in Microsoft Windows.

The text output can be generated in Microsoft Excel file, if the user selects Excel output check box in the Text Output Option form that pops up by clicking the menu Option -> Text Output...   The text output of Smart Run and Optimum Enthalpy Rise Run can not be generated in Microsoft Excel format.


References :

1. GER-2007C, A Method for Predicting the Performance of Steam Turbine-Generators... 16,500 kW and Larger, Revised July 1974 by R. C. Spencer, K. C. Cotton and C. N. Cannon, General Electric Company

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